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ACOUSTICAL BEHAVIOR OF THE BONE-IMPLANT INTERFACE: FROM MULTISCALE MODELING TO THE PATIENTS BED

Guillaume Haiat
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Guillaume Haiat is a senior research director in the CNRS and an adjunct professor in the ETS Montreal. He graduated from the Ecole Polytechnique in 1998 in physical acoustics. He defended his PhD study at the French Atomic Energy Commission in 2004 in the domain of ultrasound non-destructive evaluation in the nuclear industry. Since 2004, he works in the domain of bone quantitative ultrasound and biomechanics. He is an associate editor of the journals J Acoust Soc Am, Med Eng Phys, Ultrasound Med Biol and J Mech Med Biol. He is the PI of the BoneImplant project funded by the European Research Council (ERC Consolidator grant) and that focus on the biomechanical determinants of the osseointegration phenomena.

Laboratoire MSME UMR CNRS 8208
Faculté des Sciences et Technologies UPEC

Implants are routinely employed in orthopaedic and dental surgeries. However, risks of failure, which are difficult to anticipate, are still experienced and may have dramatic consequences. Failures are due to degraded bone remodeling at the bone-implant interface, a multiscale phenomenon which remains poorly understood. Implant stability is a key determinant for the surgical success and is determined by the quantity and biomechanical quality of bone tissue around the implant. The primary stability occurs at the moment of implant surgical insertion within bone tissue, while secondary stability is obtained through osseointegration process, a complex multiscale phenomenon, which strongly depends on primary implant stability. The objective of this presentation is to show how acoustical methods may be used in order to provide a better understanding of the multiscale mechanisms at work at the bone-implant interface. Moreover, we will show how acoustical techniques can be used to retrieve the primary and secondary stability of different implants. The first part of this presentation will describe a methodology combining experimental surgery and a multimodality approach. A dedicated coin-shaped implant model is used and has the advantage of providing reproducible and standardized conditions. We will show how quantitative ultrasound may be used to retrieve information on the evolution of the periprosthetic bone biomechanical properties.The second part of this presentation will focus on the development of non-invasive acoustical methods that may be used to retrieve implants stability. The first set-up uses quantitative ultrasound in order to assess dental implant primary and secondary stability. The second device consists in an impact hammer equipped with a piezoelectric sensor that allows to retrieve the primary stability of implants used in total hip replacement. The validation of both approaches has been done in vitro, in silico and in vivo.



NOISE TRANSMISSION AND ABSORPTION OF LIGHTWEIGHT STRUCTURES: AN OVERVIEW AND EXPERIENCE

Liu Bilong
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Improvement of sound insulation and absorption performance without increasing weight or thickness has always been the pursuit of the acoustical society. For an acoustical wave in the low frequency range, neither insulation nor absorption is easy to be dealt with by a thin structure, because the noise insulation is restricted by the so-called mass law and the absorption is limited by the reactance of structural input impedance. In both cases, to achieve effective results, the mass of structures need to be handled properly. This lecture outlines the ongoing effort to improve sound insulation and absorption for lightweight structures. Besides, examples on the vibro-acoustic properties of lightweight plates subject to typical excitations are presented, and novel structures designed for low frequency sound absorption are also reported and discussed.



Unique Vibration Phenomena in High-Speed, Lightweight, Compliant Gears

Robert Parker
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From 2012 Prof. Parker is the L. S. Randolph Professor in the Department of Mechanical Engineering at Virginia Tech, where he also served as Department Head. Previously he was a University Distinguished Professor and the Executive Dean at the University of Michigan-Shanghai Jiao Tong University Joint Institute. He received his M.S. and Ph.D. degrees from the University of California, Berkeley.
Prof. Parker's research examines the vibration of high-speed mechanical systems. One major focus has been the vibration of gear and power transmission systems. He has consulted for several companies internationally where analyses based on his research have solved vibration problems in the automotive, helicopter, wind turbine, and aircraft engine industries. He has also worked on cyclically symmetric systems, axially moving media, centrifugal pendulum vibration absorbers, and disk-spindle systems. His publications have been cited roughly 6000 times.
Prof. Parker is a Fellow of the American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) and the American Association for the Advancement of Science. He received the 2015 ASME N. O. Myklestad Award for "major innovation in vibration research and engineering." The Chinese government selected him as an inaugural awardee for its 1000 Person Plan (千人计划). He has received the US Presidential Early Career Award for Scientists and Engineers ("...the highest honor awarded by the US government to scientists and engineers early in their independent research careers"), the National Science Foundation CAREER, and the US Army Young Investigator Awards, as well as the ASME Gustus Larson Award, Ford Chief Engineer Award, French government Poste Rouge Award, SAE Ralph Teetor Educational Award, ASEE's Global Engineering Educator and Outstanding Faculty Awards, and the Journal of Sound and Vibration Doak Prize.
He serves on the Editorial Board of the Journal of Sound and Vibration and has been Associate Editor for Mechanism and Machine Theory and the ASME Journal of Vibration and Acoustics.
Prof. Parker has been a Visiting Researcher at Polytechnic University of Turin, Risoe National Lab (Denmark), the University of New South Wales, the University of Sydney, Tokyo University, NASA Glenn Research Center, and INSA Lyon.

Department of Mechanical Engineering at Virginia Tech

Gears have recently been aggressively adopted in large aircraft engines because they improve turbine and fan blade efficiency by better matching the optimal speeds of the associated shafts. The high operating speeds and extreme focus on weight reduction lead to gear vibration behaviors that are distinct from conventional gears. High speeds give high excitation frequencies, and lightweight, thin-walled gears have lower natural frequencies. This combination triggers resonance, gyroscopic effects, nonlinearity, vibration of the gears as elastically compliant bodies, and parametric instability. These behaviors are driving development of new models and analysis tools different than what is typical for conventional gears. This presentation will start with industrial examples motivating the work. Next, we describe modeling and analysis of gear vibration using analytical and finite element/contact mechanics methods, with special attention to planetary gears because they are the de facto standard in aerospace applications and because of their interesting dynamics arising from cyclic symmetry. These models, and their experimental validations, will be used to illustrate and explain, without emphasis on mathematical details, the unique vibration behaviors that occur and how the analytical/computational findings have powerful practical implications.



VARIABILITY IN SPEECH AND SPOKEN WORD RECOGNITION: A SHORT INTRODUCTION

Meghan Clayard
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Dr. Meghan Clayards is an Associate Professor at McGill University with a joint appointment in the Department of Linguistics and the School of Communication Sciences and Disorders. She is also a member of the Centre for Research on Brain, Language and Music and an associate editor for the journal Attention, Perception & Psychophysics. Dr. Clayards obtained a BSc in Linguistics from the University of Victoria in British Columbia and a PhD in Brain and Cognitive Sciences from the University of Rochester in Rochester, NY. She joined McGill after post-doctoral training in Psychology at the University of York in the UK. Her research focuses on the structure of acoustic variability in the speech signal and the role that experience with that structure has on the speech perception system. She also examines how individuals adapt to changes in acoustic patterns. Her recent work has examined individual differences in speech perception in both younger and older adults as well as in second language learners.

Department of Linguistics
School of Communication Sciences and Disorders
McGill University

One of the most important things we do every day is understand spoken language. Identifying spoken words requires the rapid integration of multiple acoustic-phonetic cues in the richly multi-dimensional and transient speech signal. Every meaningful difference in sounds (e.g. the difference between the sounds at the beginning of 'peach' and 'beach') is signalled by multiple acoustic-phonetic cues (e.g. spectral and temporal differences) and often a single cue is not enough for unambiguous perception. Furthermore, the speech signal is notoriously variable and this variability stems from many sources including the talker (e.g. differences in vocal tract size, differences in dialect) and the context (e.g. the immediately following sound, speaking style). This variability and multidimensionality in the signal are part of the central challenge that human speech perception must solve and compared to automatic systems, humans are better able to deal with the variability in particular. This talk will present an overview of challenges related to multidimensionality and variability in spoken word recognition, including sources of variability, and what is known about the solutions, including the role of plasticity. It will also introduce some recent work in my lab investigating differences between individual talkers and listeners.



CONVENTIONAL AND NON-CONVENTIONAL POROUS MATERIALS FOR NOISE CONTROL: OVERCOMING CONVENTIONAL LIMITS

Raymond Panneton
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Raymond Panneton is a professor-researcher in the Department of Mechanical Engineering at the Université de Sherbrooke since 1998. His research program focuses on the modeling, characterization and optimization of porous acoustic media. More specifically, he explores the relationships between the macroscopic properties and the local structure of these media by mathematical techniques, homogenization and microtomography. Professor Panneton is affiliated with the Acoustics group at the Université de Sherbrooke (GAUS), which provides an excellent learning and research environment for scientists and graduate students. In 1998, he co-founded Mecanum Inc., a spin-off company that develops, manufactures and markets specialized characterization equipment and acoustics software. More recently, he has formed a research team on Ecological and structured design of Acoustic Materials (EMA) to promote the use of recycled and recyclable materials in the context of sustainable development.

Groupe d'acoustique de l'Université de Sherbrooke (GAUS) Faculté de génie, Université de Sherbrooke

Porous materials everywhere in the Universe! At the Planck length scale (10e-33 cm), physicists describe space as a quantum foam. At the cosmic scale (> 10e26 cm), galaxies are distributed according to the structure of a cosmic foam. Closer to the human scale, natural porous media are formed (honeycomb, soil, rock, bone). This omnipresence and the remarkable properties of these media have long fascinated the engineers who have inspired them to create porous materials adapted to different applications of mechanical engineering: sound absorption and insulation, cooling of electronic components, implants and substitute bones, light structures, absorption of impacts, porous electrodes for fuel cells, filtration and purification of water. After an introduction of the porous media at these different scales, this presentation gives an overview of the porous materials used in noise control. This overview presents conventional and unconventional porous materials. Man manufactures conventional porous materials based on conventional chemical and physical processes and the mimicry of natural porous media. However, it seems that these materials have reached the physical limits of sound absorption and sound insulation. Moreover, their use becomes an important issue in terms of sustainable development. To obtain acoustic properties that go beyond those of conventional materials, and materials more in line with sustainable development, man must intervene by structuring the material and choosing materials safer for the environment. Metamaterials and materials designed using an ascending or a multiscale approach belong to the family of unconventional materials. Similarly, materials based on natural fibers and recycled materials belong to this family. The presentation mainly focuses on this family of materials and the underlying design methods, while presenting examples of applications and comparisons to conventional materials. In parallel, what makes a porous material a good acoustic absorber will be discussed and analyzed.



When Your Life and Ears Depend Upon Hearing Protection: The Conundrum of Auditory Situation Awareness and Attenuation

John Casali
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Dr. John Casali is the Grado Chaired Professor of Industrial and Systems Engineering at Virginia Tech, and a Board-Certified Professional Ergonomist (CPE), registration #222. He founded the Auditory Systems Laboratory in 1983, a versatile auditory/acoustics research facility at Virginia Tech that he directs today. He also is Chief Technology Officer and Founder of Hearing, Ergonomics and Acoustics Resources (HEAR) LLC, a product design, testing, and litigation support company. He is a Fellow of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society and the Institute of Industrial Engineers. He was the recipient of the NIOSH-National Hearing Conservation Association (NHCA) Safe-in-Sound Award for Innovation in Hearing Conservation in 2016, and the NHCA Outstanding Hearing Conservationist Award in 2009. He has directed over 110 research and consulting projects sponsored by various U.S. government/military agencies as well as U.S. and foreign corporations, and is responsible for procuring over $14M in total funding at Virginia Tech. During the past decade, he developed and implemented the Virginia Tech Auditory Field Test Range and the "DRILCOM" indoor test facility, in which outdoor and indoor experiments, respectively, are conducted involving auditory situation awareness (ASA) tasks of Detection, Recognition-Identification, Localization and COMmunications. These facilities are applied to both the testing of advanced hearing protection and headset effects on human auditory situation awareness (ASA), as well as training users to improve their ASA capabilities. Dr. Casali has also developed an ultra-low noise floor facility to perform human aural nondetectability acoustical testing for human-worn devices per MIL-STD-1474D. Many of the 200+ publications emanating from his research concern hearing protection performance and attenuation, auditory situation awareness and communications, military hearing scenarios, and auditory displays and warnings. Dr. Casali is co-holder of 3 U.S. Patents for innovative hearing protection and communications devices, has another U.S. patent for a detachable power drive/steer attachment for a folding wheelchair, is co-holder of a U.S. Patent for a method of displacing cartilage in the ear canal to position hearing aids and earplugs and another U.S. Patent for a method of maintaining constant signal-to-noise ratio in vehicles to enhance situation awareness. He has authored noise ordinance legislation adopted by a small cities and participated in public hearings and court cases on zoning and community noise annoyance issues. Dr. Casali enjoys working with the U.S. military, various companies, and community groups on auditory situation awareness, hearing protection and earphone design, community noise, ergonomics, and patent and product liability litigation.

Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University

Prevention of noise-induced hearing loss via hearing protection devices (HPDs), together with con-comitant preservation of one's auditory situation awareness (ASA) and vigilance to the surrounding acoustic environment, is critical. Examples include construction workers who wear electronic ear-muffs but must hear backup alarms, emergency vehicle drivers who need hearing protection from the vehicle's siren but must also hear car horns and communications, and military personnel who wear gunfire-noise-protective headsets but must hear certain signals and speech. This paper re-views several ASA experiments on "augmented" HPDs, which rely on either passive (i.e., dynamic acoustic "valves" and filter) or active (i.e., battery-powered electronic) technologies, that are in-tended to provide "pass-through" hearing capability with concomitant hearing protection. Over the past decade, several in-field and in-lab experiments at Virginia Tech have demonstrated that certain augmented HPDs and Tactical-Communications-and-Protective-Systems (TCAPS) in fact do not provide natural hearing or "transparency," and have deleterious effects on ASA. Experimental stimuli have included vehicular warning alarms, military-relevant signals and other signatures of broadband, low-frequency, and high-frequency content. Measures of ASA performance have in-cluded: hearing threshold at detection, accuracy and response time in recognizing/identifying and localizing signals, and intelligibility of communications. Based on these experiments, an objective, repeatable test battery was developed for evaluating HPD and TCAPS effects on the ASA tasks of: Detection, Recognition/Identification, Localization (azimuth and frontal elevation), and COMmu-nication, known as "DRILCOM." Example results from the ASA testing using various signals are covered. Also, the interaction effects of HPD attenuation with the low-frequency interaural time difference (ITD) cues and high-frequency interaural level difference (ILD) cues that are so critical to localization are covered. It is postulated that standardized ASA testing of augmented HPDs and TCAPS, in similar fashion to commonplace and standardized attenuation testing, should be done before devices are deployed on personnel in dangerous environments.

NOTE: This work received the "Safe in Sound Award for Innovation in Hearing Conservation," awarded by the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) in February, 2016. See: http://www.safeinsound.us/winners.html


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